This article accompanies the page
Western Europe came late to bathhouses. They only caught on in the 18th century when the rich came to the spa towns, as much to see and be seen as for "the waters": Bath in England, Karlsbad in Bohemia, Baden Baden in Germany... Visitors at these spas included Jane Austen, Beethoven and Dostoevsky respectively.
The two paintings below are by Lawrence Alma-Tadema, arguably the most successful painter in late Victorian England (although he was Dutch born). First is The Baths at Caracalla (1899). Alma-Tadema's reputation then, as now, rested on his ability to make the English feel that their empire resembled the glory of ancient Rome. Can you imagine this scene happening in London in Victorian times? I can't.
Below is A Favourite Custom (1909), which appears to be hinting coyly at a lesbian encounter, but who's to say? Now that could be London (although it's supposed to be Pompeii). It is in the Tate Gallery.
Mayakovsky's The Bathhouse is satirical and surreal and may be compared with Bulgakov's contemporary novel The Master and Margarita: here. The Bathhouse was a flop and Mayakovsky committed suicide months later, albeit for other more personal reasons.
For more bathhouses, purification rituals and baptism in ancient Byzantium: here
Then there was that hyper-gay figure Gaston from Beauty & the Beast...
Below is Charles Demuth's Turkish Bath with Self Portrait (1918). Primarily a watercolorist, Demuth was from Lancaster, Pennsylvania and this bathhouse was likely the Lafayette Baths in Manhattan. Demuth became well connected among the modernist/artistic communities of New York and Paris. Some of his later work is even more openly gay - not an easy thing at the time.